African American Military History Research

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African American Military
African American Military

Pick one historical figure or group listed below- each of these people or groups are connected to African American Military History from 1877 to 2017.

This essay must be at least 300 words.

The essay and 2 peer responses (at least 200 words each) are due Sunday, 11:55 p.m. ET. Post your essay as early as possible so students have time to respond.

They are both graded with the essay grading rubric.

Therefore, do not use your textbook or an encyclopedia.

Research in the library or from the course bibliography.

You must cite and use at least one academic source.

You may research on the internet, but if you do, you must use credible sources only (Wikipedia,, blogs etc are not credible sources, for example).

The following links can help you determine which sources are credible or non-credible during your research:

Credible vs non-credible sources, Getting Started With Research, Why I Shouldn’t Use Wikipedia and Identifying your Resources.

Remember that this is a formal essay of at least 300 words and you need an introduction (with a thesis statement), body, and conclusion.

Two responses must be at least 200 words each. Respond as many times as you wish. Your best two responses will be graded.

You must cite and use at least one academic source. Because students must respond, please post your essay as soon as possible.

Tell the class the history of this person(s) as it relates to African American Military History and remember to cite where you found your information.

Pick the  African American Military figures wisely!!!..These are first come, first serve.

Points will be deducted for repeating material already covered and you must label your forum heading with the African American Military figures key  name or group’s name.

***You can label your heading prior to writing your forum response- go back after you label your post and edit it to add the information. ***

This way you can claim the person before someone else does. An example of Forum heading title is:

Retired 4-star General Colin Powell.

Pick one from the list below of African American Military figures;

  1. Dorie Miller
  2. James Stone
  3. Harlem Hell fighters
  4. James Reese Europe
  5. Henry Johnson
  6. Needham Roberts
  7. 1918 Army Nurse Corps
  8. 78th Tank Battalion
  9. 24th Infantry Regiment
  10. Charles B. Hall
  11. Triple Nickels -555th Parachute Infantry Company
  12. Harriet M. Waddy
  13. Nancy Leftenant-Colon
  14. William Henry Thompson
  15. Clotilde Dent Bowen
  16. Fred Moore
  17. Milton L. Olive III
  18. Benjamin L. Hunton
  19. Frederic E. Davidson
  20. Clara Leach Adams-Ender
  21. Hazel Winifred Johnson
  22. Roscoe Robinson Jr.
  23. Sherian Grace Cadoria
  24. Henry Doctor Jr.
  25. Freddie Stowers
  26. Larry Jordan
  27. Imam Abdul-Rasheed Muhammad
  28. Gene C. McKinney
  29. Vernon Baker
  30. Erroll M. Brown
  31. Samuel A. Woods Jr.
  32. Wesley A. Brown
  33. Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr.
  34. Benjamin Oliver Davis Jr.
  35. Ruth Lucas
  36. Juanita Bell
  37. Lloyd W. “Fig” Newton
  38. Daniel H. “Chappie” James Jr.
  39. Marcelite Jordan Harris
  40. Virgil and Sheldon Starkes
  41. Carlette “CJ” Jones
  42. James E. Johnson
  43. Frederick C. Branch
  44. Frank E. Peterson Jr.
  45. James Anderson Jr.
  46. Alford McMichael
  47. Denise H. Hoover
  48. Gilda Jackson
  49. Henry Ossian Flipper
  50. Walter E. Gaskin Sr.
  51. Jeannette Winters
  52. Vertner W. Tandy
  53. Irene Trowell-Harris
  54. Bernard Whitfield Robinson
  55. William Baldwin
  56. USS Harmon
  57. Samuel Lee Gravely Jr.
  58. 1944 WAVES
  59. Phyllis Mae Dailey
  60. Carl Maxie Brashear
  61. Jesse Leroy Brown
  62. Michelle Howard
  63. Donnie Cochran
  64. Henry McNeal Turner
  65. Henry Vinson Plummer
  66. Buffalo Soldiers (after 1877)
  67. Charles Young
  68. Allen Allensworth (after 1877)
  69. Fort Des Moines, Iowa
  70. Leo Pinckney
  71. 369th Infantry Regiment
  72. Lillian Elaine Fishburne
  73. J. Paul Reason
  74. Eugene Bullard
  75. 51st and 52nd Defense Battalion
  76. 51st Composite Defense Battalion
  77. Ronald Bailey
  78. 92nd Infantry unit
  79. 332nd Fighter group of the Tuskegee Airmen

Atmospheric Pressure;Discussion Question

Atmospheric Pressure.

Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure

Need in four hours- must be in APA format and list all references (300 word min. Not included references).

In this chapter, we discussed the atmosphere in terms of pressure, density, temperature, composition, and the various layers.

I’m confused about a couple things.

Please explain them to me:

At 18,000 feet, barometric pressure is about half of what it is at sea level.

Thus, I would suspect that at 36,000 feet barometric pressure would be zero. However, this isn’t the case.

Barometric pressure doesn’t reach zero until infinity; in other words, an infinite number of feet above sea level.

That’s a lot farther than 36,000. How is this possible?

Strategic Geography in a Cultural Sense

Strategic Geography
Strategic Geography

The geographical factors of an area have a direct impact on cultural activities carried out by different communities.

Take an instance of various states that possess vast community diversities and variety in climatic regions and physical features and phenomena.

The population distribution of different communities is solely dependent on the cultural practices with which these communities are identified.

For example, other communities have popular with fishing activities due to their popularity with proximity and tendency to settle along the lake regions.


Therefore, the social standing is directly influenced by geography strategy hence shaping the popular culture of different communities. [1: . Bassin, Mark. “The Origins of Eurasia.” European Regions and Boundaries: A Conceptual History 3 (2017): 210.]

Geography Strategy in a Legal Sense

The legibility of laws and policies is dependent on geographical factors and settings in that, policies set for one geographical range may be inapplicable for a different one due to the variation like the two places.


For instance, in some countries, harvesting of rainwater for domestic use from the roofs of houses was prohibited in the cities due to the high levels of contamination of this water and the existence of ancient homes whose roofs were built with a harmful material called asbestos that contaminated water with lead molecules.

[2: . Browning, Christopher S. “Geo-strategies, geopolitics and ontological security in the Eastern neighborhood: The European Union and the ‘new Cold War’.” Political Geography 62 (2018): 106-115 ]

However, the countryside was exempted from this rule due to the vast contrast in the geographical area hence varying climatic conditions.


The activities that can be carried out in a geographic area are dictated by the adaptations of that area to withstand the impacts of those human activities.

In the U.S, testing of atomic bombs is done in isolated places with little or no productivity as legal laws dictate. That is just but another example.

[3: . Pepe, Jacopo Maria. “Eurasian Transport Integration Beyond Energy: Geo-economic Transformation and Geo-strategic Response.” In Beyond Energy, pp. 247-430. Springer VS, Wiesbaden, 2018.]

Geography Strategy in a Political Sense

Leadership and political influence of countries and states are dependent on the geography of the area under leadership.

Most mainland countries are under the rule of presidents or prime ministers and a centralized government due to the reasonable size of land being governed.

However, there are small countries and offshore islands that exist as independent states with no particular presidents.

For such geographical settings, the communities living within those small areas develop their form of leadership based on their culture and traditions, for example, through traditional leadership by kings or council of elders.

Geography Strategy in an Economic Sense

The geographical factors determine government expenditure on different areas of a country.

For example, the expenses incurred in a desert region may go to the provision of relief supplies for settlers of that area while those incurred in a mountain region may go to construction of navigable roads for movement up and down the mountain.

Therefore, the economic decisions made are almost entirely dependent on geographical factors.

In another instance, geographic areas with dense population may attract more expenses compared to sparsely populated ones hence a major determining factor in the allocation of economic resources.

Regarding the development of infrastructure, different geographical factors require different economic input because different climatic conditions accompanying a variety of geographical areas need an array of materials and methods used in construction hence the variation.

Economic activities carried out in various places are determined by the geographic factors like the climatic conditions of the place.


Some areas may be considered suitable for agricultural activities for income generation while others may merely be appropriate for tourism due to the attractive tourist sites.

[4: . Bassin, Mark. “The Origins of Eurasia.” European Regions and Boundaries: A Conceptual History 3 (2017): 210. ]

Interrelations between the Four Senses

The four senses discussed above are in one way or the other related and dependent on each other to fulfill the adaptations to geographical factors.

Cultural sense is connected to economic sense since communities generate income from the cultural activities they love to do as determined by the geographical elements surrounding them.


The legal reason is connected to the political sense by deciding what kind of leadership is suitable in a geographic area.

It is also related to the cultural sense by determining the furthest extent to which communities occupying specific geographic areas can go in their interactions with the features of that area like forests.

[5: ..Jepe, Jacopo Maria. “Eurasian Transport Integration Beyond Energy: Geo-economic Transformation and Geo-strategic Response.” In Beyond Energy, pp. 247-430. Springer VS, Wiesbaden, 2018.]


Bassin, Mark. “The Origins of Eurasia.” European Regions and Boundaries: A Conceptual History 3 (2017): 210.
Browning, Christopher S. “Geo-strategies, geopolitics and ontological security in the Eastern neighborhood: The European Union and the ‘new Cold War’.” Political Geography 62 (2018): 106-115.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. The grand chessboard: American primacy and its Geo-strategic imperatives. Basic books, 2016.

Pepe, Jacopo Maria. “Eurasian Transport Integration Beyond Energy:

Geo-economic Transformation and Geo-strategic Response.” In Beyond Energy, pp. 247-430. Springer VS, Wiesbaden, 2018.

Gandhi Square;Global writing

Gandhi Square.

Gandhi Square
Gandhi Square

Gandhi Square is a commonly known place for tourists with a lively urban atmosphere and trading activity. The location of square is the middle part of Johannesburg city.

The name of the square honors Mahatma Gandhi, who was a famous fighter for the human rights (“Gandhi Square.” para. 2).

The person who transformed mentality of numerous people, and currently, whose values and perception continue to influence contemporary views.

The central part of the square has a unique Mahatma Gandhi monument. Gandhi dressed in attorney clothes.

Square reconstruction contributed to the retail development; thus, banks, restaurants, and stores appeared around the place.

The picture depicts overcrowded bus station and free road around which there are high buildings and skyscraper.

There are billboards located on the upper part of the several buildings, and buses parked alongside the road.

People depicted in the picture are mostly of African origin which suggests that these people are locals. Hence, there are bags on the shoulders, and supposedly, most of the people from the picture go from school.

Gandhi Square is attraction located in developing country since there is no dense automobile traffic, low quantity of billboards, and damaged curbs.

Accordingly, other squares from various developed countries have opposite features. New-York Times Square overcrowded with people and has multiple advertisements.

The situation is similar with Trafalgar Square; hence, overall pavement, curbs, and road markings are featured clearly and do not have damages.

Consequently, the living standards difference can be noticed from the picture.

Work Cited

“Gandhi Square.” SA-Venues,